EIF2AK4 (Q9P2K8) - Overview - Molecular Target Synopsis
EIF2AK4, eIF-2-alpha kinase GCN2
Enzyme Classification 18.104.22.168
Also Known as E2AK4_HUMAN, EIF2AK4, GCN2, KIAA1338
Metabolic-stress sensing protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2-alpha/EIF2S1) on 'Ser-52' in response to low amino acid availability (PubMed:25329545). Plays a role as an activator of the integrated stress response (ISR) required for adapatation to amino acid starvation. Converts phosphorylated eIF-2-alpha/EIF2S1 either to a competitive inhibitor of the translation initiation factor eIF-2B, leading to a global protein synthesis repression, and thus to a reduced overall utilization of amino acids, or to a translational initiation activation of specific mRNAs, such as the transcriptional activator ATF4, and hence allowing ATF4-mediated reprogramming of amino acid biosynthetic gene expression to alleviate nutrient depletion. Binds uncharged tRNAs (By similarity). Involved in cell cycle arrest by promoting cyclin D1 mRNA translation repression after the unfolded protein response pathway (UPR) activation or cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 mRNA translation activation in response to amino acid deprivation (PubMed:26102367). Plays a role in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity, learning as well as formation of long-term memory. Plays a role in neurite outgrowth inhibition. Plays a proapoptotic role in response to glucose deprivation. Promotes global cellular protein synthesis repression in response to UV irradiation independently of the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 MAPK signaling pathways (By similarity). Plays a role in the antiviral response against alphavirus infection; impairs early viral mRNA translation of the incoming genomic virus RNA, thus preventing alphavirus replication., (Microbial infection) Plays a role in modulating the adaptive immune response to yellow fever virus infection; promotes dendritic cells to initiate autophagy and antigene presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells under amino acid starvation (PubMed:24310610). Homodimer; homodimerization is important for kinase activation by uncharged tRNAs. Interacts with GCN1; this interaction stimulates EIF2AK4/GCN2 kinase activity and is impaired by IMPACT upon a variety of stress conditions, such as amino acid depletion, UV-C irradiation, proteasome inhibitor treatment and glucose deprivation. Interacts with DNAJC3; this interaction inhibits EIF2AK4/GCN2 kinase activity during endoplasmic reticulum (ER), hypothermic and amino acid-starving stress conditions.
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UniProt: EIF2AK4 is active in the following subcellular-locations: cytoplasm.
GO terms: EIF2AK4 is active in the following subcellular-locations: cytosolic ribosome, polysome.