Molecular Target Synopsis
Overview
Domains and Structures
Drugs and Clinical Candidates
Druggability
Chemistry
Ligand Efficiency Plot
Pathways
Family Cladogram
Interaction Network
Gene Expression
Gene Copy Number Variation
RNAi
Mutations
Germline Genetics

MAPK14 (Q16539) - Overview - Molecular Target Synopsis

Protein


MAPK14, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14
Enzyme Classification 2.7.11.24
UniProt Q16539

Also Known as MK14_HUMAN, MAPK14, CSBP, CSBP1, CSBP2, CSPB1, MXI2, SAPK2A

Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK14 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors. Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300 substrates each. Some of the targets are downstream kinases which are activated through phosphorylation and further phosphorylate additional targets. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 can directly phosphorylate and activate transcription factors such as CREB1, ATF1, the NF-kappa-B isoform RELA/NFKB3, STAT1 and STAT3, but can also phosphorylate histone H3 and the nucleosomal protein HMGN1. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 play important roles in the rapid induction of immediate-early genes in response to stress or mitogenic stimuli, either by inducing chromatin remodeling or by recruiting the transcription machinery. On the other hand, two other kinase targets, MAPKAPK2/MK2 and MAPKAPK3/MK3, participate in the control of gene expression mostly at the post-transcriptional level, by phosphorylating ZFP36 (tristetraprolin) and ELAVL1, and by regulating EEF2K, which is important for the elongation of mRNA during translation. MKNK1/MNK1 and MKNK2/MNK2, two other kinases activated by p38 MAPKs, regulate protein synthesis by phosphorylating the initiation factor EIF4E2. MAPK14 interacts also with casein kinase II, leading to its activation through autophosphorylation and further phosphorylation of TP53/p53. In the cytoplasm, the p38 MAPK pathway is an important regulator of protein turnover. For example, CFLAR is an inhibitor of TNF-induced apoptosis whose proteasome-mediated degradation is regulated by p38 MAPK phosphorylation. In a similar way, MAPK14 phosphorylates the ubiquitin ligase SIAH2, regulating its activity towards EGLN3. MAPK14 may also inhibit the lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of the transmembrane protein ATG9. Another function of MAPK14 is to regulate the endocytosis of membrane receptors by different mechanisms that impinge on the small GTPase RAB5A. In addition, clathrin-mediated EGFR internalization induced by inflammatory cytokines and UV irradiation depends on MAPK14-mediated phosphorylation of EGFR itself as well as of RAB5A effectors. Ectodomain shedding of transmembrane proteins is regulated by p38 MAPKs as well. In response to inflammatory stimuli, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate the membrane-associated metalloprotease ADAM17. Such phosphorylation is required for ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding of TGF-alpha family ligands, which results in the activation of EGFR signaling and cell proliferation. Another p38 MAPK substrate is FGFR1. FGFR1 can be translocated from the extracellular space into the cytosol and nucleus of target cells, and regulates processes such as rRNA synthesis and cell growth. FGFR1 translocation requires p38 MAPK activation. In the nucleus, many transcription factors are phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAPKs in response to different stimuli. Classical examples include ATF1, ATF2, ATF6, ELK1, PTPRH, DDIT3, TP53/p53 and MEF2C and MEF2A. The p38 MAPKs are emerging as important modulators of gene expression by regulating chromatin modifiers and remodelers. The promoters of several genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as IL6, IL8 and IL12B, display a p38 MAPK-dependent enrichment of histone H3 phosphorylation on 'Ser-10' (H3S10ph) in LPS-stimulated myeloid cells. This phosphorylation enhances the accessibility of the cryptic NF-kappa-B-binding sites marking promoters for increased NF-kappa-B recruitment. Phosphorylates CDC25B and CDC25C which is required for binding to 14-3-3 proteins and leads to initiation of a G2 delay after ultraviolet radiation. Phosp Component of a signaling complex containing at least AKAP13, PKN1, MAPK14, ZAK and MAP2K3. Within this complex, AKAP13 interacts directly with PKN1, which in turn recruits MAPK14, MAP2K3 and ZAK (PubMed:21224381). Binds to a kinase interaction motif within the protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPRR (By similarity). This interaction retains MAPK14 in the cytoplasm and prevents nuclear accumulation (By similarity). Interacts with SPAG9 and GADD45A (By similarity). Interacts with CDC25B, CDC25C, DUSP1, DUSP10, DUSP16, NP60, SUPT20H and TAB1. Interacts with casein kinase II subunits CSNK2A1 and CSNK2B. Interacts with PPM1D. Interacts with CDK5RAP3; recruits PPM1D to MAPK14 and may regulate its dephosphorylation (PubMed:21283629).

6HWV
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF P38ALPHA IN COMPLEX WITH A PHOTOSWITCHABLE 2- AZOIMIDAZOL-BASED INHIBITOR (COMPOUND 3)
RCSB/PDB
Inspect Structure
See all 3D Structures for MAPK14

Isoforms / Transcripts (Protein Coding)


Sub-cellular localization


UniProt: MAPK14 is active in the following subcellular-locations: cytoplasm, nucleus.
GO terms: MAPK14 is active in the following subcellular-locations: cytoplasm, cytosol, extracellular region, ficolin-1-rich granule lumen, glutamatergic synapse, mitochondrion, nuclear speck, nucleoplasm, nucleus, secretory granule lumen, spindle pole.



UniProt
GO terms

Gene Copy Number Variation


In COSMIC - Cell Lines Project MAPK14 has gain in 2 cell-lines, loss in 1 cell-lines and no signal in 1002 cell-lines. (see details)

Gene Expression


In NCI60, the highest expressing cell lines are: MDA_MB_231, NCI_H522, HS578T

In Array Express (RNA-seq of 675 commonly used human cancer cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: SCC-3, SU-DHL-1, NCI-H522

In Array Express (RNA-seq of long poly adenylated RNA and long non poly adenylated RNA from ENCODE cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: SK-N-SH, NHLF, HSMM

(see details)

RNA Interference


MAPK14 was reported in the following RNAI studies:

Cell - Large Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines, the highest RNAi cell lines are: HCC1954, MCF12A. (see details)

3D Structures


For MAPK14 there are:
233 structures (251 chains) solved
205 are solved in complex with at least one small molecule ligand
4 are solved with an approved drug

MAPK14 is solved in complex with the approved drug(s):

BAX/SORAFENIB (3GCS_A, 3HEG_A),
STI/IMATINIB (3HEC_A),
1N1/DASATINIB (3LFA_A).

(see details)
Molecular Target 3D Synopsis

Screening and Chemistry


MAPK14 has been screened with 7873 compounds (12747 bioactivities), 3423 compounds have bioactivities that show binding affinity of <= 500nM (4940 bioactivities). (see details)