Molecular Target Synopsis
Domains and Structures
Drugs and Clinical Candidates
Ligand Efficiency Plot
Family Cladogram
Interaction Network
Gene Expression
Gene Copy Number Variation
Germline Genetics

PAK1 (Q13153) - Overview - Molecular Target Synopsis


PAK1, Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1
Enzyme Classification
UniProt Q13153

Also Known as PAK1_HUMAN, PAK1

Protein kinase involved in intracellular signaling pathways downstream of integrins and receptor-type kinases that plays an important role in cytoskeleton dynamics, in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, mitosis, and in vesicle-mediated transport processes. Can directly phosphorylate BAD and protects cells against apoptosis. Activated by interaction with CDC42 and RAC1. Functions as GTPase effector that links the Rho-related GTPases CDC42 and RAC1 to the JNK MAP kinase pathway. Phosphorylates and activates MAP2K1, and thereby mediates activation of downstream MAP kinases. Involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, actin stress fibers and of focal adhesion complexes. Phosphorylates the tubulin chaperone TBCB and thereby plays a role in the regulation of microtubule biogenesis and organization of the tubulin cytoskeleton. Plays a role in the regulation of insulin secretion in response to elevated glucose levels. Part of a ternary complex that contains PAK1, DVL1 and MUSK that is important for MUSK-dependent regulation of AChR clustering during the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Activity is inhibited in cells undergoing apoptosis, potentially due to binding of CDC2L1 and CDC2L2. Phosphorylates MYL9/MLC2. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-338' and 'Ser-339' resulting in: activation of RAF1, stimulation of RAF1 translocation to mitochondria, phosphorylation of BAD by RAF1, and RAF1 binding to BCL2. Phosphorylates SNAI1 at 'Ser-246' promoting its transcriptional repressor activity by increasing its accumulation in the nucleus. In podocytes, promotes NR3C2 nuclear localization. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin (CFL1) and for the up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3, maybe through CFL1 phosphorylation and inactivation. Plays a role in RUFY3-mediated facilitating gastric cancer cells migration and invasion (PubMed:25766321). In response to DNA damage, phosphorylates MORC2 which actovates its ATPase activity and facilitates chromatin remodeling (PubMed:23260667). Homodimer in its autoinhibited state. Active as monomer. Component of cytoplasmic complexes, which also contains PXN, ARHGEF6 and GIT1. Interacts with NISCH (By similarity). Interacts with DVL1; mediates the formation of a DVL1, MUSK and PAK1 ternary complex involved in AChR clustering (By similarity). Binds to the caspase-cleaved p110 isoform of CDC2L1 and CDC2L2, p110C, but not the full-length proteins (PubMed:12624090). Interacts with ARHGEF7 (PubMed:16101281). Interacts tightly with GTP-bound but not GDP-bound CDC42/P21 and RAC1 (By similarity). Probably found in a ternary complex composed of DSCAM, PAK1 and RAC1. Interacts with DSCAM (via cytoplasmic domain); the interaction is direct and enhanced in presence of RAC1 (PubMed:15169762). Interacts with SCRIB (PubMed:18716323). Interacts with PDPK1 (PubMed:10995762). Interacts (via kinase domain) with RAF1 (PubMed:11733498). Interacts with NCK1 and NCK2 (PubMed:10026169). Interacts with TBCB (PubMed:15831477). Interacts with CRIPAK (PubMed:16278681). Interacts with BRSK2 (By similarity). Interacts with SNAI1 (PubMed:15833848). Interacts with CIB1 isoform 2 (PubMed:23503467). Interacts with CIB1 (via N-terminal region); the interaction is direct, promotes PAK1 activity and occurs in a calcium-dependent manner. Interacts with INPP5K (PubMed:26940976).

Inspect Structure
See all 3D Structures for PAK1

Isoforms / Transcripts (Protein Coding)

Sub-cellular localization

UniProt: PAK1 is active in the following subcellular-locations: cell junction, cell membrane, cell projection, chromosome, cytoplasm, focal adhesion, invadopodium, nucleoplasm, nucleus, ruffle membrane.
GO terms: PAK1 is active in the following subcellular-locations: actin filament, axon, cell-cell junction, cytoplasm, cytosol, dendrite, focal adhesion, intercalated disc, invadopodium, lamellipodium, nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, plasma membrane, protein-containing complex, ruffle, ruffle membrane, Z disc.

GO terms

Gene Copy Number Variation

In COSMIC - Cell Lines Project PAK1 has gain in 10 cell-lines, loss in 0 cell-lines and no signal in 994 cell-lines. (see details)

Gene Expression

In NCI60, the highest expressing cell lines are: COLO205, LOXIMVI, OVCAR_3

In Array Express (RNA-seq of 675 commonly used human cancer cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: MKN-45, GTL-16, MDA-MB-134-VI

In Array Express (RNA-seq of long poly adenylated RNA and long non poly adenylated RNA from ENCODE cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: HMEC, HSMM, NHLF

(see details)

RNA Interference

PAK1 was reported in the following RNAI studies:

Cell - Large Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines, the highest RNAi cell lines are: MFM223, CAMA1. (see details)

3D Structures

For PAK1 there are:
30 structures (54 chains) solved
23 are solved in complex with at least one small molecule ligand

(see details)
Molecular Target 3D Synopsis

Screening and Chemistry

PAK1 has been screened with 797 compounds (1330 bioactivities), 144 compounds have bioactivities that show binding affinity of <= 500nM (183 bioactivities). (see details)