Molecular Target Synopsis
Overview
Domains and Structures
Drugs and Clinical Candidates
Druggability
Chemistry
Ligand Efficiency Plot
Pathways
Family Cladogram
Interaction Network
Gene Expression
Gene Copy Number Variation
RNAi
Mutations
Germline Genetics

PRKAA2 (P54646) - Overview - Molecular Target Synopsis

Protein


PRKAA2, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2
Enzyme Classification 2.7.11.1
UniProt P54646

Also Known as AAPK2_HUMAN, PRKAA2, AMPK, AMPK2

Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE; regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by phosphorylating IRS1, PFKFB2 and PFKFB3. Involved in insulin receptor/INSR internalization (PubMed:25687571). AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in muscle by increasing the translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, possibly by mediating phosphorylation of TBC1D4/AS160. Regulates transcription and chromatin structure by phosphorylating transcription regulators involved in energy metabolism such as CRTC2/TORC2, FOXO3, histone H2B, HDAC5, MEF2C, MLXIPL/ChREBP, EP300, HNF4A, p53/TP53, SREBF1, SREBF2 and PPARGC1A. Acts as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver by phosphorylating CRTC2/TORC2, leading to CRTC2/TORC2 sequestration in the cytoplasm. In response to stress, phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of histone H2B (H2BS36ph), leading to promote transcription. Acts as a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation by phosphorylating TSC2, RPTOR and ATG1/ULK1: in response to nutrient limitation, negatively regulates the mTORC1 complex by phosphorylating RPTOR component of the mTORC1 complex and by phosphorylating and activating TSC2. In response to nutrient limitation, promotes autophagy by phosphorylating and activating ATG1/ULK1. In that process also activates WDR45 (PubMed:28561066). AMPK also acts as a regulator of circadian rhythm by mediating phosphorylation of CRY1, leading to destabilize it. May regulate the Wnt signaling pathway by phosphorylating CTNNB1, leading to stabilize it. Also phosphorylates CFTR, EEF2K, KLC1, NOS3 and SLC12A1. Plays an important role in the differential regulation of pro-autophagy (composed of PIK3C3, BECN1, PIK3R4 and UVRAG or ATG14) and non-autophagy (composed of PIK3C3, BECN1 and PIK3R4) complexes, in response to glucose starvation. Can inhibit the non-autophagy complex by phosphorylating PIK3C3 and can activate the pro-autophagy complex by phosphorylating BECN1. AMPK is a heterotrimer of an alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2), a beta (PRKAB1 or PRKAB2) and a gamma non-catalytic subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3). Interacts with FNIP1 and FNIP2. Associates with internalized insulin receptor/INSR complexes on Golgi/endosomal membranes; PRKAA2/AMPK2 together with ATIC and HACD3/PTPLAD1 is proposed to be part of a signaling network regulating INSR autophosphorylation and endocytosis (PubMed:25687571).

6BX6
AMP-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE (AMPK) INHIBITION BY SBI-0206965: ALPHA 2 KINASE DOMAIN BOUND TO SBI-0206965
RCSB/PDB
Inspect Structure
See all 3D Structures for PRKAA2

Isoforms / Transcripts (Protein Coding)


Protein Length Ensembl Gene Ensembl Transcript Ensembl Protein Uniprot Isoform
552ENSG00000162409ENST00000371244ENSP00000360290P54646-1

Sub-cellular localization


UniProt: PRKAA2 is active in the following subcellular-locations: cytoplasm, nucleus.
GO terms: PRKAA2 is active in the following subcellular-locations: axon, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic stress granule, cytosol, dendrite, Golgi apparatus, neuronal cell body, nuclear speck, nucleoplasm, nucleotide-activated protein kinase complex, nucleus.



UniProt
GO terms

Gene Copy Number Variation


In COSMIC - Cell Lines Project PRKAA2 has gain in 2 cell-lines, loss in 2 cell-lines and no signal in 1001 cell-lines. (see details)

Gene Expression


In NCI60, the highest expressing cell lines are: SF_268, RXF_393, NCI_H460

In Array Express (RNA-seq of 675 commonly used human cancer cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: NCI-H460, DMS 53, NCI-H2106

In Array Express (RNA-seq of long poly adenylated RNA and long non poly adenylated RNA from ENCODE cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: HSMM, HMEC, SK-N-SH

(see details)

RNA Interference


PRKAA2 was reported in the following RNAI studies:

Cell - Large Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines, the highest RNAi cell lines are: BT474, HCH1. (see details)

3D Structures


For PRKAA2 there are:
12 structures (18 chains) solved
9 are solved in complex with at least one small molecule ligand



(see details)
Molecular Target 3D Synopsis

Screening and Chemistry


PRKAA2 has been screened with 1019 compounds (1723 bioactivities), 18 compounds have bioactivities that show binding affinity of <= 500nM (28 bioactivities). (see details)