Molecular Target Synopsis
Domains and Structures
Drugs and Clinical Candidates
Ligand Efficiency Plot
Family Cladogram
Interaction Network
Gene Expression
Gene Copy Number Variation
Germline Genetics

CDK9 (P50750) - Overview - Molecular Target Synopsis


CDK9, Cyclin-dependent kinase 9
Enzyme Classification
UniProt P50750

Also Known as CDK9_HUMAN, CDK9, CDC2L4, TAK

Protein kinase involved in the regulation of transcription. Member of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which facilitates the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (C-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) POLR2A, SUPT5H and RDBP. This complex is inactive when in the 7SK snRNP complex form. Phosphorylates EP300, MYOD1, RPB1/POLR2A and AR, and the negative elongation factors DSIF and NELF. Regulates cytokine inducible transcription networks by facilitating promoter recognition of target transcription factors (e.g. TNF-inducible RELA/p65 activation and IL-6-inducible STAT3 signaling). Promotes RNA synthesis in genetic programs for cell growth, differentiation and viral pathogenesis. P-TEFb is also involved in cotranscriptional histone modification, mRNA processing and mRNA export. Modulates a complex network of chromatin modifications including histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1), H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and H3K36me3; integrates phosphorylation during transcription with chromatin modifications to control co-transcriptional histone mRNA processing. The CDK9/cyclin-K complex has also a kinase activity towards CTD of RNAP II and can substitute for CDK9/cyclin-T P-TEFb in vitro. Replication stress response protein; the CDK9/cyclin-K complex is required for genome integrity maintenance, by promoting cell cycle recovery from replication arrest and limiting single-stranded DNA amount in response to replication stress, thus reducing the breakdown of stalled replication forks and avoiding DNA damage. In addition, probable function in DNA repair of isoform 2 via interaction with KU70/XRCC6. Promotes cardiac myocyte enlargement. RPB1/POLR2A phosphorylation on 'Ser-2' in CTD activates transcription. AR phosphorylation modulates AR transcription factor promoter selectivity and cell growth. DSIF and NELF phosphorylation promotes transcription by inhibiting their negative effect. The phosphorylation of MYOD1 enhances its transcriptional activity and thus promotes muscle differentiation. Component of the super elongation complex (SEC), at least composed of EAF1, EAF2, CDK9, MLLT3/AF9, AFF (AFF1 or AFF4), the P-TEFb complex and ELL (ELL, ELL2 or ELL3). Associates with CCNT1/cyclin-T1, CCNT2/cyclin-T2 (isoform A and isoform B) or CCNK/cyclin-K to form active P-TEFb. P-TEFb forms a complex with AFF4/AF5Q31 and is part of the super elongation complex (SEC). Component of a complex which is composed of at least 5 members: HTATSF1/Tat-SF1, P-TEFb complex, RNA pol II, SUPT5H, and NCL/nucleolin. Associates with UBR5 and forms a transcription regulatory complex composed of CDK9, RNAP II, UBR5 and TFIIS/TCEA1 that can stimulate target gene transcription (e.g. gamma fibrinogen/FGG) by recruiting their promoters. Component of the 7SK snRNP inactive complex which is composed of at least 8 members: P-TEFb (composed of CDK9 and CCNT1/cyclin-T1), HEXIM1, HEXIM2, LARP7, BCDIN3, SART3 proteins and 7SK and U6 snRNAs. This inactive 7SK snRNP complex can also interact with NCOR1 and HDAC3, probably to regulate CDK9 acetylation. Release of P-TEFb from P-TEFb/7SK snRNP complex requires both PP2B to transduce calcium Ca(2+) signaling in response to stimuli (e.g. UV or hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)), and PPP1CA to dephosphorylate Thr-186. This released P-TEFb remains inactive in the pre-initiation complex with BRD4 until new Thr-186 phosphorylation occurs after the synthesis of a short RNA (PubMed:10393184, PubMed:10574912, PubMed:12037670, PubMed:11884399, PubMed:12065898, PubMed:12718890, PubMed:15965233, PubMed:16109376, PubMed:17452463, PubMed:17643375, PubMed:18249148, PubMed:18483222, PubMed:18566585, PubMed:20159561, PubMed:20471948, PubMed:21127351, PubMed:21779453, PubMed:22195968, PubMed:9491887). Interacts with BRD4; to target chromatin binding (PubMed:16109376, PubMed:16109377, PubMed:18483222). Interacts with JMJD6 (PubMed:24360279). Interacts with activated nuclear STAT3 and RELA/p65 (PubMed:17956865, PubMed:18362169). Binds to AR and MYOD1 (PubMed:12037670, PubMed:20980437). Forms a complex composed of CDK9, CCNT1/cyclin-T1, EP300 and GATA4 that stimulates hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes (PubMed:20081228). The large PER complex involved in the repression of transcriptional termination is composed of at least PER2, CDK9, DDX5, DHX9, NCBP1 and POLR2A (By similarity). Interacts with HSF1 (PubMed:27189267). Interacts with TBX21 (By similarity). Isoform 3: binds to KU70/XRCC6 (PubMed:20535204).

Inspect Structure
See all 3D Structures for CDK9

Isoforms / Transcripts (Protein Coding)

Sub-cellular localization

Gene Copy Number Variation

In COSMIC - Cell Lines Project CDK9 has gain in 1 cell-lines, loss in 1 cell-lines and no signal in 1002 cell-lines. (see details)

Gene Expression

In NCI60, the highest expressing cell lines are: LOXIMVI, MDA_MB_231, K_562

In Array Express (RNA-seq of 675 commonly used human cancer cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: SUP-B15, SK-N-FI, U266B1

In Array Express (RNA-seq of long poly adenylated RNA and long non poly adenylated RNA from ENCODE cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: SK-N-SH, HUVEC, A549

(see details)

RNA Interference

CDK9 was reported in the following RNAI studies:

Cell - Large Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines, the highest RNAi cell lines are: SKGT4, TE10. (see details)

3D Structures

For CDK9 there are:
23 structures (28 chains) solved
15 are solved in complex with at least one small molecule ligand
2 are solved with an approved drug

CDK9 is solved in complex with the approved drug(s):


(see details)
Molecular Target 3D Synopsis

Screening and Chemistry

CDK9 has been screened with 1271 compounds (1801 bioactivities), 633 compounds have bioactivities that show binding affinity of <= 500nM (765 bioactivities). (see details)