CSNK1D, Casein kinase I isoform delta
Enzyme Classification 184.108.40.206
Also Known as
KC1D_HUMAN, CSNK1D, HCKID
Essential serine/threonine-protein kinase that regulates diverse cellular growth and survival processes including Wnt signaling, DNA repair and circadian rhythms. It can phosphorylate a large number of proteins. Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. Phosphorylates connexin-43/GJA1, MAP1A, SNAPIN, MAPT/TAU, TOP2A, DCK, HIF1A, EIF6, p53/TP53, DVL2, DVL3, ESR1, AIB1/NCOA3, DNMT1, PKD2, YAP1, PER1 and PER2. Central component of the circadian clock. In balance with PP1, determines the circadian period length through the regulation of the speed and rhythmicity of PER1 and PER2 phosphorylation. Controls PER1 and PER2 nuclear transport and degradation. YAP1 phosphorylation promotes its SCF(beta-TRCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. DNMT1 phosphorylation reduces its DNA-binding activity. Phosphorylation of ESR1 and AIB1/NCOA3 stimulates their activity and coactivation. Phosphorylation of DVL2 and DVL3 regulates WNT3A signaling pathway that controls neurite outgrowth. EIF6 phosphorylation promotes its nuclear export. Triggers down-regulation of dopamine receptors in the forebrain. Activates DCK in vitro by phosphorylation. TOP2A phosphorylation favors DNA cleavable complex formation. May regulate the formation of the mitotic spindle apparatus in extravillous trophoblast. Modulates connexin-43/GJA1 gap junction assembly by phosphorylation. Probably involved in lymphocyte physiology. Regulates fast synaptic transmission mediated by glutamate. Monomer (PubMed:22168824, PubMed:23106386). Component of the circadian core oscillator, which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK, or NPAS2, ARTNL/BMAL1 or ARTNL2/BMAL2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E, TIMELESS and the PER proteins (By similarity). Interacts with DNMT1 and MAP1A (By similarity). Interacts directly with PER1 and PER2 which may lead to their degradation (PubMed:11165242). Interacts with MAPT/TAU (PubMed:14761950). Interacts with SNAPIN (By similarity). Interacts with DBNDD2 (PubMed:16618118). Interacts with AIB1/NCOA3 and ESR1 (PubMed:19339517). Interacts with AKAP9/AKAP450; this interaction promotes centrosomal subcellular location (PubMed:12270714). Binds to tubulins in mitotic cells upon DNA damage (PubMed:10826492). Interacts with GJA1 (PubMed:12270943).