MAPK9, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9
Enzyme Classification 188.8.131.52
Also Known as
MK09_HUMAN, MAPK9, JNK2, PRKM9, SAPK1A
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK9/JNK2. In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In response to oxidative or ribotoxic stresses, inhibits rRNA synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating the RNA polymerase 1-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including TP53 and YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, is activated by CARMA1, BCL10, MAP2K7 and MAP3K7/TAK1 to regulate JUN protein levels. Plays an important role in the osmotic stress-induced epithelial tight-junctions disruption. When activated, promotes beta-catenin/CTNNB1 degradation and inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Participates also in neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons. Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock (PubMed:22441692). Phosphorylates POU5F1, which results in the inhibition of POU5F1's transcriptional activity and enhances its proteosomal degradation., MAPK9 isoforms display different binding patterns: alpha-1 and alpha-2 preferentially bind to JUN, whereas beta-1 and beta-2 bind to ATF2. However, there is no correlation between binding and phosphorylation, which is achieved at about the same efficiency by all isoforms. JUNB is not a substrate for JNK2 alpha-2, and JUND binds only weakly to it. Interacts with MECOM (By similarity). Interacts with DCLK2 (By similarity). Binds to at least four scaffolding proteins, MAPK8IP1/JIP-1, MAPK8IP2/JIP-2, MAPK8IP3/JIP-3/JSAP1 and SPAG9/MAPK8IP4/JIP-4. These proteins also bind other components of the JNK signaling pathway (By similarity). Interacts with NFATC4 (PubMed:17875713). Interacts with ATF7; the interaction does not phosphorylate ATF7 but acts as a docking site for ATF7-associated partners such as JUN (PubMed:10376527). Interacts with BCL10 (PubMed:17189706). Interacts with CTNNB1 and GSK3B (PubMed:19675674). Interacts with MAPKBP1 (PubMed:28089251). Interacts with POU5F1; phosphorylates POU5F1 at 'Ser-355'. Found in a complex with SH3RF1, RAC2, MAP3K7/TAK1, MAP2K7/MKK7, MAPK8IP1/JIP1 and MAPK8/JNK1.