Molecular Target Synopsis
Domains and Structures
Drugs and Clinical Candidates
Ligand Efficiency Plot
Family Cladogram
Interaction Network
Gene Expression
Gene Copy Number Variation
Germline Genetics

EIF2AK2 (P19525) - Overview - Molecular Target Synopsis


EIF2AK2, Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase
Enzyme Classification
UniProt P19525

Also Known as E2AK2_HUMAN, EIF2AK2, PKR, PRKR

IFN-induced dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase which plays a key role in the innate immune response to viral infection and is also involved in the regulation of signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Exerts its antiviral activity on a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), measles virus (MV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1). Inhibits viral replication via phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2S1), this phosphorylation impairs the recycling of EIF2S1 between successive rounds of initiation leading to inhibition of translation which eventually results in shutdown of cellular and viral protein synthesis. Also phosphorylates other substrates including p53/TP53, PPP2R5A, DHX9, ILF3, IRS1 and the HHV-1 viral protein US11. In addition to serine/threonine-protein kinase activity, also has tyrosine-protein kinase activity and phosphorylates CDK1 at 'Tyr-4' upon DNA damage, facilitating its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Either as an adapter protein and/or via its kinase activity, can regulate various signaling pathways (p38 MAP kinase, NF-kappa-B and insulin signaling pathways) and transcription factors (JUN, STAT1, STAT3, IRF1, ATF3) involved in the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs. Activates the NF-kappa-B pathway via interaction with IKBKB and TRAF family of proteins and activates the p38 MAP kinase pathway via interaction with MAP2K6. Can act as both a positive and negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway (ISP). Negatively regulates ISP by inducing the inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at 'Ser-312' and positively regulates ISP via phosphorylation of PPP2R5A which activates FOXO1, which in turn up-regulates the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2). Can regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and the activation of NLRP3, NLRP1, AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes. Can trigger apoptosis via FADD-mediated activation of CASP8. Plays a role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton by binding to gelsolin (GSN), sequestering the protein in an inactive conformation away from actin. Homodimer. Interacts with STRBP (By similarity). Interacts with DNAJC3. Forms a complex with FANCA, FANCC, FANCG and HSP70. Interacts with ADAR/ADAR1. Interacts with IRS1 (By similarity). The inactive form interacts with NCK1 and GSN. Interacts (via the kinase catalytic domain) with STAT3 (via SH2 domain), TRAF2 (C-terminus), TRAF5 (C-terminus) and TRAF6 (C-terminus). Interacts with MAP2K6, IKBKB/IKKB, NPM1, TARBP2, NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2. Interacts (via DRBM 1 domain) with DUS2L (via DRBM domain). Interacts with DHX9 (via N-terminus) and this interaction is dependent upon activation of the kinase.

Inspect Structure
See all 3D Structures for EIF2AK2

Isoforms / Transcripts (Protein Coding)

Sub-cellular localization

UniProt: EIF2AK2 is active in the following subcellular-locations: cytoplasm, nucleus, perinuclear region.
GO terms: EIF2AK2 is active in the following subcellular-locations: cytoplasm, cytosol, cytosolic ribosome, membrane, nucleus, perinuclear region of cytoplasm, ribosome.

GO terms

Gene Copy Number Variation

In COSMIC - Cell Lines Project EIF2AK2 has gain in 3 cell-lines, loss in 1 cell-lines and no signal in 1001 cell-lines. (see details)

Gene Expression

In NCI60, the highest expressing cell lines are: HT29, RXF_393, NCI_H226

In Array Express (RNA-seq of 675 commonly used human cancer cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: NCI-H596, SW 900, TYK-nu

In Array Express (RNA-seq of long poly adenylated RNA and long non poly adenylated RNA from ENCODE cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: NHLF, HSMM, NHEK

(see details)

RNA Interference

EIF2AK2 was reported in the following RNAI studies:

Cell - Large Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines, the highest RNAi cell lines are: MCF12A, COV362. (see details)

3D Structures

For EIF2AK2 there are:
4 structures (6 chains) solved
1 are solved in complex with at least one small molecule ligand

(see details)
Molecular Target 3D Synopsis

Screening and Chemistry

EIF2AK2 has been screened with 225 compounds (271 bioactivities), 20 compounds have bioactivities that show binding affinity of <= 500nM (23 bioactivities). (see details)