SRC, Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src
Enzyme Classification 220.127.116.11
Also Known as
SRC_HUMAN, SRC, SRC1
Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase which is activated following engagement of many different classes of cellular receptors including immune response receptors, integrins and other adhesion receptors, receptor protein tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors as well as cytokine receptors. Participates in signaling pathways that control a diverse spectrum of biological activities including gene transcription, immune response, cell adhesion, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, migration, and transformation. Due to functional redundancy between members of the SRC kinase family, identification of the specific role of each SRC kinase is very difficult. SRC appears to be one of the primary kinases activated following engagement of receptors and plays a role in the activation of other protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) families. Receptor clustering or dimerization leads to recruitment of SRC to the receptor complexes where it phosphorylates the tyrosine residues within the receptor cytoplasmic domains. Plays an important role in the regulation of cytoskeletal organization through phosphorylation of specific substrates such as AFAP1. Phosphorylation of AFAP1 allows the SRC SH2 domain to bind AFAP1 and to localize to actin filaments. Cytoskeletal reorganization is also controlled through the phosphorylation of cortactin (CTTN) (Probable). When cells adhere via focal adhesions to the extracellular matrix, signals are transmitted by integrins into the cell resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of focal adhesion proteins, including PTK2/FAK1 and paxillin (PXN) (PubMed:21411625). In addition to phosphorylating focal adhesion proteins, SRC is also active at the sites of cell-cell contact adherens junctions and phosphorylates substrates such as beta-catenin (CTNNB1), delta-catenin (CTNND1), and plakoglobin (JUP). Another type of cell-cell junction, the gap junction, is also a target for SRC, which phosphorylates connexin-43 (GJA1). SRC is implicated in regulation of pre-mRNA-processing and phosphorylates RNA-binding proteins such as KHDRBS1 (Probable). Also plays a role in PDGF-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of both STAT1 and STAT3, leading to increased DNA binding activity of these transcription factors (By similarity). Involved in the RAS pathway through phosphorylation of RASA1 and RASGRF1 (PubMed:11389730). Plays a role in EGF-mediated calcium-activated chloride channel activation (PubMed:18586953). Required for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) internalization through phosphorylation of clathrin heavy chain (CLTC and CLTCL1) at 'Tyr-1477'. Involved in beta-arrestin (ARRB1 and ARRB2) desensitization through phosphorylation and activation of GRK2, leading to beta-arrestin phosphorylation and internalization. Has a critical role in the stimulation of the CDK20/MAPK3 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by epidermal growth factor (Probable). Might be involved not only in mediating the transduction of mitogenic signals at the level of the plasma membrane but also in controlling progression through the cell cycle via interaction with regulatory proteins in the nucleus (PubMed:7853507). Plays an important role in osteoclastic bone resorption in conjunction with PTK2B/PYK2. Both the formation of a SRC-PTK2B/PYK2 complex and SRC kinase activity are necessary for this function. Recruited to activated integrins by PTK2B/PYK2, thereby phosphorylating CBL, which in turn induces the activation and recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to the cell membrane in a signaling pathway that is critical for osteoclast function (PubMed:8755529, PubMed:14585963). Promotes energy production in osteoclasts by activating mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase (PubMed:12615910). Phosphorylates DDR2 on tyrosine residues, thereby promoting its subsequent autophosphorylation (PubMed:16186108). Phosphorylates RUNX3 and COX2 on tyrosine residues, TNK2 on 'Tyr-284' and CBL on 'Tyr-731' (PubMed:20100835, PubMed:21309750). Enhances DDX58/RIG-I-e Interacts with DDEF1/ASAP1; via the SH3 domain (By similarity). Interacts with CCPG1 (By similarity). Identified in a complex containing FGFR4, NCAM1, CDH2, PLCG1, FRS2, SRC, SHC1, GAP43 and CTTN (By similarity). Interacts with ERBB2, STAT1 and PNN (By similarity). Interacts with DDR1, DDR2 and DAB2 (By similarity). Interacts with CDCP1, PELP1, TGFB1I1 and TOM1L2 (PubMed:12415108, PubMed:15851033, PubMed:16479011, PubMed:17202804). Interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of MUC1, phosphorylates it and increases binding of MUC1 with beta-catenin (PubMed:11152665). Interacts with RALGPS1; via the SH3 domain (PubMed:10747847). Interacts with CAV2 (tyrosine phosphorylated form) (PubMed:12091389, PubMed:15504032). Interacts (via the SH3 domain and the protein kinase domain) with ARRB1; the interaction is independent of the phosphorylation state of SRC C-terminus (By similarity). Interacts with ARRB1 and ARRB2 (PubMed:10753943, PubMed:9924018). Interacts with SRCIN1 (PubMed:17525734). Interacts with NDFIP2 and more weakly with NDFIP1 (PubMed:20534535). Interacts with PIK3CA and/or PIK3C2B, PTK2/FAK1 and ESR1 (dimethylated on arginine) (PubMed:18657504, PubMed:21411625). Interacts with FASLG (PubMed:19807924). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with the 'Tyr-402' phosphorylated form of PTK2B/PYK2 (PubMed:14585963). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with FLT3 (tyrosine phosphorylated) (By similarity). Interacts with PDGFRA (tyrosine phosphorylated) (By similarity). Interacts with CSF1R (By similarity). Interacts (via SH2 and SH3 domain) with TNK2 (PubMed:21309750). Interacts (via protein kinase domain) with the tyrosine phosphorylated form of RUNX3 (via runt domain) (PubMed:20100835). Interacts with TRAF3 (via RING-type zinc finger domain) (PubMed:19419966). Interacts with DDX58, MAVS and TBK1 (PubMed:19419966). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with RACK1; the interaction is enhanced by tyrosine phosphorylation of RACK1 and inhibits SRC activity (PubMed:9584165, PubMed:11279199). Interacts with EPHB1; activates the MAPK/ERK cascade to regulate cell migration (PubMed:12925710). Interacts with FCAMR (PubMed:8759729). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with the 'Tyr-9' phosphorylated form of PDPK1 (PubMed:18024423). Interacts with AMOTL2; this interaction regulates the translocation of phosphorylated SRC to peripheral cell-matrix adhesion sites (PubMed:17293535). Interacts with TRAP1 (PubMed:23564345). Interacts with CBLC; the interaction is enhanced when SRC is phosphorylated at Tyr-419 (PubMed:14661060, PubMed:22888118). Interacts with ARHGEF5 (By similarity). Interacts (via cytoplasmic domain) with CEACAM1 (via SH2 domain); this interaction is regulated by trans-homophilic cell adhesion (PubMed:7478590). Interacts with MPP2 (PubMed:19665017). Interacts with PRR7 (PubMed:21460222). Interacts (via kinase domain and to a lesser extent the SH2 domain) directly with PDLIM4; this interaction results in PTPN13-mediated dephosphorylation of this protein leading to its inactivation (PubMed:19307596).