Molecular Target Synopsis
Overview
Domains and Structures
Drugs and Clinical Candidates
Druggability
Chemistry
Ligand Efficiency Plot
Pathways
Family Cladogram
Interaction Network
Gene Expression
Gene Copy Number Variation
RNAi
Mutations
Germline Genetics

ABL1 (P00519) - Overview - Molecular Target Synopsis

Protein


ABL1, Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1
Enzyme Classification 2.7.10.2
UniProt P00519

Also Known as ABL1_HUMAN, ABL1, ABL, JTK7

Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a role in many key processes linked to cell growth and survival such as cytoskeleton remodeling in response to extracellular stimuli, cell motility and adhesion, receptor endocytosis, autophagy, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Coordinates actin remodeling through tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins controlling cytoskeleton dynamics like WASF3 (involved in branch formation); ANXA1 (involved in membrane anchoring); DBN1, DBNL, CTTN, RAPH1 and ENAH (involved in signaling); or MAPT and PXN (microtubule-binding proteins). Phosphorylation of WASF3 is critical for the stimulation of lamellipodia formation and cell migration. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of key regulators of these processes such as BCAR1, CRK, CRKL, DOK1, EFS or NEDD9. Phosphorylates multiple receptor tyrosine kinases and more particularly promotes endocytosis of EGFR, facilitates the formation of neuromuscular synapses through MUSK, inhibits PDGFRB-mediated chemotaxis and modulates the endocytosis of activated B-cell receptor complexes. Other substrates which are involved in endocytosis regulation are the caveolin (CAV1) and RIN1. Moreover, ABL1 regulates the CBL family of ubiquitin ligases that drive receptor down-regulation and actin remodeling. Phosphorylation of CBL leads to increased EGFR stability. Involved in late-stage autophagy by regulating positively the trafficking and function of lysosomal components. ABL1 targets to mitochondria in response to oxidative stress and thereby mediates mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. In response to oxidative stress, phosphorylates serine/threonine kinase PRKD2 at 'Tyr-717' (PubMed:28428613). ABL1 is also translocated in the nucleus where it has DNA-binding activity and is involved in DNA-damage response and apoptosis. Many substrates are known mediators of DNA repair: DDB1, DDB2, ERCC3, ERCC6, RAD9A, RAD51, RAD52 or WRN. Activates the proapoptotic pathway when the DNA damage is too severe to be repaired. Phosphorylates TP73, a primary regulator for this type of damage-induced apoptosis. Phosphorylates the caspase CASP9 on 'Tyr-153' and regulates its processing in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Phosphorylates PSMA7 that leads to an inhibition of proteasomal activity and cell cycle transition blocks. ABL1 acts also as a regulator of multiple pathological signaling cascades during infection. Several known tyrosine-phosphorylated microbial proteins have been identified as ABL1 substrates. This is the case of A36R of Vaccinia virus, Tir (translocated intimin receptor) of pathogenic E.coli and possibly Citrobacter, CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) of H.pylori, or AnkA (ankyrin repeat-containing protein A) of A.phagocytophilum. Pathogens can highjack ABL1 kinase signaling to reorganize the host actin cytoskeleton for multiple purposes, like facilitating intracellular movement and host cell exit. Finally, functions as its own regulator through autocatalytic activity as well as through phosphorylation of its inhibitor, ABI1. Regulates T-cell differentiation in a TBX21-dependent manner. Phosphorylates TBX21 on tyrosine residues leading to an enhancement of its transcriptional activator activity. Interacts with SORBS1 following insulin stimulation. Found in a trimolecular complex containing CDK5 and CABLES1. Interacts with CABLES1 and PSTPIP1. Interacts with ZDHHC16, ITGB1 and HCK (By similarity). Interacts with STX17; probably phosphorylates STX17. Interacts with INPPL1/SHIP2. Interacts with the 14-3-3 proteins, YWHAB, YWHAE, YWHAG, YWHAH, SFN AND YWHAZ; the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins requires phosphorylation on Thr-735 and, sequesters ABL1 into the cytoplasm. Interacts with ABI1, ABI2, BCR, CRK, FGR, FYN, HCK, LYN, PSMA7 RAD9A, RAD51, RAD52, TP73 and WASF3. A complex made of ABL1, CTTN and MYLK regulates cortical actin-based cytoskeletal rearrangement critical to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated endothelial cell (EC) barrier enhancement. Interacts (via SH3 domain) with CASP9; the interaction is direct and increases in the response of cells to genotoxic stress and ABL1/c-Abl activation. Found in a complex with ABL1, ABL2, CRK and UNC119; leading to the inhibition of CRK phosphorylation by ABL kinases. Interacts with TBX21.

6NPE
C-ABL KINASE DOMAIN WITH THE ACTIVATOR(CMPD6), 2-CYANO-N-(4-(3,4- DICHLOROPHENYL)THIAZOL-2-YL)ACETAMIDE
RCSB/PDB
Inspect Structure
See all 3D Structures for ABL1

Isoforms / Transcripts (Protein Coding)


Drugs


ABL1 is targeted by Approved Drugs Imatinib, Dasatinib, Bosutinib, Nilotinib. (see details)
Imatinib
Dasatinib
Bosutinib
Nilotinib

Sub-cellular localization


UniProt: ABL1 is active in the following subcellular-locations: cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, mitochondrion, nucleus, nucleus membrane.
GO terms: ABL1 is active in the following subcellular-locations: actin cytoskeleton, cell leading edge, cytoplasm, cytosol, dendrite, mitochondrion, neuronal cell body, nuclear body, nuclear membrane, nucleolus, nucleoplasm, nucleus, perinuclear region of cytoplasm, postsynapse, protein-containing complex.



UniProt
GO terms

Gene Copy Number Variation


In COSMIC - Cell Lines Project ABL1 has gain in 0 cell-lines, loss in 1 cell-lines and no signal in 1004 cell-lines. (see details)

Gene Expression


In NCI60, the highest expressing cell lines are: SNB_75, LOXIMVI, BT_549

In Array Express (RNA-seq of 675 commonly used human cancer cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: LOX-IMVI, G84, RKO-E6

In Array Express (RNA-seq of long poly adenylated RNA and long non poly adenylated RNA from ENCODE cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: SK-N-SH, NHLF, HSMM

(see details)

RNA Interference


ABL1 was reported in the following RNAI studies:

Cell - Large Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines, the highest RNAi cell lines are: H358, ZR7530. (see details)

3D Structures


For ABL1 there are:
65 structures (122 chains) solved
32 are solved in complex with at least one small molecule ligand
12 are solved with an approved drug

ABL1 is solved in complex with the approved drug(s):

1N1/DASATINIB (2GQG_A, 2GQG_B, 4XEY_A, 4XEY_B),
STI/IMATINIB (2HYY_A, 2HYY_B, 2HYY_C, 2HYY_D, 3PYY_A, 3PYY_B, 6NPE_A, 6NPE_B, 6NPU_A, 6NPU_B, 6NPV_A, 6NPV_B),
DB8/BOSUTINIB (3UE4_A, 3UE4_B),
NIL/NILOTINIB (3CS9_A, 3CS9_B, 3CS9_C, 3CS9_D, 5MO4_A),
AXI/AXITINIB (4TWP_A, 4TWP_B, 4WA9_A, 4WA9_B).

(see details)
Molecular Target 3D Synopsis

Screening and Chemistry


ABL1 has been screened with 3869 compounds (11864 bioactivities), 1255 compounds have bioactivities that show binding affinity of <= 500nM (2198 bioactivities). (see details)