Molecular Target Synopsis
Domains and Structures
Drugs and Clinical Candidates
Ligand Efficiency Plot
Family Cladogram
Interaction Network
Gene Expression
Gene Copy Number Variation
Germline Genetics

ARNTL (O00327) - Overview - Molecular Target Synopsis


ARNTL, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1
UniProt O00327


Transcriptional activator which forms a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots 'circa' (about) and 'diem' (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for 'timegivers'). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndromes and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK|NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1|ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1/2 and RORA/B/G, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. ARNTL/BMAL1 positively regulates myogenesis and negatively regulates adipogenesis via the transcriptional control of the genes of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Plays a role in normal pancreatic beta-cell function; regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via the regulation of antioxidant genes NFE2L2/NRF2 and its targets SESN2, PRDX3, CCLC and CCLM. Negatively regulates the mTORC1 signaling pathway; regulates the expression of MTOR and DEPTOR. Controls diurnal oscillations of Ly6C inflammatory monocytes; rhythmic recruitment of the PRC2 complex imparts diurnal variation to chemokine expression that is necessary to sustain Ly6C monocyte rhythms. Regulates the expression of HSD3B2, STAR, PTGS2, CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and LHCGR in the ovary and also the genes involved in hair growth. Plays an important role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis by regulating the timely entry of neural stem/progeni Component of the circadian clock oscillator which includes the CRY1/2 proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E, TIMELESS and the PER1/2/3 proteins (By similarity). Forms a heterodimer with CLOCK (PubMed:9616112, PubMed:23229515). The CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer is required for E-box-dependent transactivation, for CLOCK nuclear translocation and degradation, and, for phosphorylation of both CLOCK and ARNTL/BMAL1 (By similarity). Part of a nuclear complex which also includes RACK1 and PRKCA; RACK1 and PRKCA are recruited to the complex in a circadian manner (By similarity). Interacts with NPAS2 (By similarity). Interacts with EZH2 (By similarity). Interacts with SUMO3 (By similarity). Interacts with SIRT1 (By similarity). Interacts with AHR (PubMed:9079689). Interacts with ID1, ID2 and ID3 (By similarity). Interacts with DDX4 (By similarity). Interacts with OGT (By similarity). Interacts with EED and SUZ12 (By similarity). Interacts with MTA1 (By similarity). Interacts with CIART (PubMed:24385426). Interacts with HSP90 (PubMed:9079689). Interacts with KAT2B and EP300 (PubMed:14645221). Interacts with BHLHE40/DEC1 and BHLHE41/DEC2 (By similarity). Interacts with RELB and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of CLOCK (By similarity). Interacts with PER1, PER2, CRY1 and CRY2 and this interaction requires a translocation to the nucleus (By similarity). Interaction of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer with PER or CRY inhibits transcription activation (By similarity). Interaction of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 with CRY1 is independent of DNA but with PER2 is off DNA (By similarity). The CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer interacts with GSK3B (By similarity). Interacts with KDM5A (PubMed:21960634). Interacts with KMT2A; in a circadian manner (By similarity). Interacts with UBE3A (PubMed:24728990). Interacts with PRKCG (By similarity). Interacts with MAGEL2 (By similarity). Interacts with NCOA2 (By similarity). Interacts with THRAP3 (By similarity). The CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer interacts with PASD1 (PubMed:25936801). Interacts with PASD1 (PubMed:25936801). Interacts with USP9X (PubMed:29626158).

Inspect Structure
See all 3D Structures for ARNTL

Isoforms / Transcripts (Protein Coding)

Sub-cellular localization

UniProt: ARNTL is active in the following subcellular-locations: cytoplasm, nucleus, pml body.
GO terms: ARNTL is active in the following subcellular-locations: chromatoid body, intracellular membrane-bounded organelle, nucleoplasm, nucleus, PML body, transcription factor complex.

GO terms

Gene Copy Number Variation

In COSMIC - Cell Lines Project ARNTL has gain in 3 cell-lines, loss in 2 cell-lines and no signal in 1000 cell-lines. (see details)

Gene Expression

In NCI60, the highest expressing cell lines are: SR, SF_539, HS578T

In Array Express (RNA-seq of 675 commonly used human cancer cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: NCI-H1915, Hs 746T, MCF 10A

In Array Express (RNA-seq of long poly adenylated RNA and long non poly adenylated RNA from ENCODE cell lines), the highest expressing cell lines are: NHEK, GM12878, HSMM

(see details)

3D Structures

For ARNTL there are:
1 structures (1 chains) solved
0 are solved in complex with at least one small molecule ligand

(see details)
Molecular Target 3D Synopsis

Screening and Chemistry

ARNTL has been screened with compounds ( bioactivities). (see details)