SMCHD1 (A6NHR9) - Overview - Molecular Target Synopsis
SMCHD1, Structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain-containing protein 1
Enzyme Classification 3.6.1.-
Also Known as SMHD1_HUMAN, SMCHD1, KIAA0650
Non-canonical member of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein family that plays a key role in epigenetic silencing by regulating chromatin architecture (By similarity). Promotes heterochromatin formation in both autosomes and chromosome X, probably by mediating the merge of chromatin compartments (By similarity). Plays a key role in chromosome X inactivation in females by promoting the spreading of heterochromatin (PubMed:23542155). Recruited to inactivated chromosome X by Xist RNA and acts by mediating the merge of chromatin compartments: promotes random chromatin interactions that span the boundaries of existing structures, leading to create a compartment-less architecture typical of inactivated chromosome X (By similarity). Required to facilitate Xist RNA spreading (By similarity). Also required for silencing of a subset of clustered autosomal loci in somatic cells, such as the DUX4 locus (PubMed:23143600). Has ATPase activity; may participate in structural manipulation of chromatin in an ATP-dependent manner as part of its role in gene expression regulation (PubMed:29748383). Also plays a role in DNA repair: localizes to sites of DNA double-strand breaks in response to DNA damage to promote the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (PubMed:25294876, PubMed:24790221). Acts by promoting non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and inhibiting homologous recombination (HR) repair (PubMed:25294876). Homodimer; homodimerizes via its SMC hinge domain (By similarity). Interacts with LRIF1 (PubMed:23542155).
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UniProt: SMCHD1 is active in the following subcellular-locations: chromosome.
GO terms: SMCHD1 is active in the following subcellular-locations: Barr body, site of double-strand break.